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Iodine Research

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Liver


JOANTA
Iodide excess exerts oxidative stress in some target tissues of the thyroid hormones.
Joanta AE, Filip A, Clichici S, Andrei S, Daicoviciu D.
Acta Physiol Hung. 2006 Dec;93(4):347-59.

Environmental iodine deficiency continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide. On
the other hand, iodide excess results principally from the use of iodine-containing medicinal
preparations or radiographic contrast media. For this reason we intended to explore iodide excess
impairment on prooxidant/antioxidant balance of the thyroid gland, hepatic tissue and in blood and
the effect of selenium administration on oxidative stress markers under the same circumstances.
Experiments were performed for 10 days with white, male, Wistar rats, as follows: group 1:
control-normal iodine supply group; 2: high iodine diet, group; 3: high iodine diet and selenium;
group 4: high iodine diet and Carbimasole. Oxidative stress markers such as lipid peroxides were
determined in thyroid gland, hepatic tissue and in blood. Measuring H+ donor ability of the sera
and catalase activity in thyroid gland and in hepatic tissue assessed antioxidant defense. Iodide
excess had prooxidant effects, leading to an increased lipid peroxides level and catalase activity in
target tissues and in blood and to a decreased H+ donor ability of the sera. Selenium
supplementation had opposite effects. Present data allow us to conclude that the alterations due
to iodide excess in thyroid gland, hepatic tissue and in blood are mediated through oxidative stress.


KYDD
Precipitable iodine of serum (SPI) in disorders of the liver.
Kydd DM, Man EB
J Clin Invest. 1951 Aug;30(8):874-8.

Recently, high values of precipitable iodine of the serum (SPI) in certain instances of hepatitis and
variable values in cirrhosis of the liver have been reported from this laboratory.  Inasmuch as
these sporadic high values in hepatitis were at variance with our usual findings, and because high,
low and normal values have been found in cirrhosis, additional studies of patients with disorders of
the liver have been conducted.


PERROS
Radioiodine uptake in normal female breasts and liver of a patient with differentiated thyroid
cancer imaged by whole body scanning.
Perros P, Mallick UK, Fenwick JD.
Thyroid. 2003 May;13(5):511.

Diffuse hepatic uptake is also common in the presence of functioning thyroid remnant, and
represents hepatic metabolism of iodoproteins, which may be mistaken for metastases.


SCHUHMANN-GIAMPIERI
Pharmacokinetics of iopromide liposomes in rabbits.
Schuhmann-Giampieri G, Leike J, Sachse A, Krause W.
Pharm Res. 1995 Jul;12(7):1065-71.
[abstract only]

PURPOSE: The dose-proportionality of pharmacokinetics of an iodinated contrast medium,
iopromide, encapsulated into liposomes was investigated.

METHODS. Following single intravenous administration of 150 mg iodine/kg (potential diagnostic
dose) and a five-fold higher dose in rabbits the pattern of elimination was studied until 7 d and the
blood concentrations were monitored up to 72 h after administration. The iodine concentration in
the liver was calculated on the basis of the blood concentration and related to the concentration
measured in the rabbit liver.

RESULTS. The dose-normalized blood concentration-time profiles of the encapsulated iodine were
not superimposable. Contrary to the low dose a steady-state concentration of 2.8 mg iodine/mL
was observed in blood for 60 min after the high dose administration indicating a saturation of the
liposomal liver uptake. For both doses the elimination of iodine occurred predominantly via the
kidneys and was complete 7 d after administration. The dose-normalized amounts of iodine
excreted with the urine were similar for both dose groups. From the blood data it was calculated
that doses up to about 300 mg iodine/kg should result in a dose-proportional increase of liposomal
liver uptake before saturation occurs. This was confirmed by the measured iodine liver
concentrations after increasing the doses stepwise from 150 to 750 mg iodine/kg.

CONCLUSIONS. In rabbits for the dose range 150 to 750 mg iodine/kg iopromide liposomes reveal
dose-dependent pharmacokinetics due to a saturation in liver uptake which occurs for doses of
300 mg iodine/kg corresponding to 300 mg lipid/kg onwards.
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